Lung Cancer Facts

 Lung Cancer Facts


Lung Cancer Facts


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among both men and women. More women die each year of lung cancer than of breast cancer.


How is lung cancer found?


Lung cancer is hard to find in its early stages. Sometimes the disease spreads very quickly. And symptoms often do not appear until the disease is advanced. Most lung cancers are not found until the cancer has spread beyond the lungs. Only about 15 percent are found before the cells have spread to lymph nodes or distant organs.


What FDA-approved methods are used to find (diagnose) lung cancer?


Chest x-ray or CT scan to check for spots on the lungs


Studying phlegm cells under a microscope. (Phlegm is a thick liquid that can collect in your throat. It is pronounced "flem.")


Bronchoscopy. This method uses lighted tubes, which carry air to the lungs, to see if there are tumors or other tissue blocking the airway.


There are two types of lung cancer:


Small Cell Lung Cancer


Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer


About 25 percent of lung cancer cases are small cell lung cancer. The other 75 percent of cases are non-small cell lung cancer.


Stages of lung cancer:


Small Cell


Limited stage --The tumor is usually in only one lung and in the lymph nodes on the same side of the chest.


Extensive stage --The cancer has spread to the other lung and to lymph nodes on the other side of the chest. Or it has spread to distant organs.


Non-Small Cell


Occult Stage: Cancer is found in saliva, but tumors cannot be found in the lungs.


Stage 0: There is cancer in only a few layers of cells.


Stage 1: The tumor is only in the lung.


Stage II: Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.


Stage III: Cancer has spread to one of these areas:


   the chest wall or diaphragm near the lung


   the lymph nodes between the two lungs


   the lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or in the neck.


Stage IV: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.


Recurrent cancer: is cancer that returns after treatment. It can be either small cell or non-small cell cancer.




What lung cancer treatments are approved by the FDA?


Surgery --taking out the cancer in an operation


Chemotherapy --using medicine to kill cancer cells


Radiation --using high-dose x-rays to kill cancer cells


Treatment may combine two or more of these therapies.


The risks of smoking:


Smoking causes 90 percent of lung cancers in men and more than 70 percent in women.


The more you smoke and the longer you smoke, the more likely you are to develop lung cancer.


The warning signs of lung cancer:


A cough that hangs on and on


Chest pain


Weight loss and/ or loss of appetite


Bloody phlegm


Shortness of breath


Hoarseness


A fever for an unknown reason


Recurring infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia



US Food and Drug Administration